Latin American Electroacoustic Music Collection

Jorge Antunes, Fluxo Luminoso para Sons Brancos I, 1964

Recording time: 2 min 31 s.
Instruments: Tape
Recorded at: Home studio. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Remarks: Luminous Flow for White Sounds I

Other resources available:
- Biography of Jorge Antunes
- Compositions by Jorge Antunes

About this composition:

This piece was produced in 1964. A new piece of apparatus had been integrated into the composer's amateur home-made studio: an industrial generator of sine and square waves (Sanwa brand, model AG 202).
The working method in this case was more involved, making use of a pre-conceived scheme. The construction of the sound objects is more conscious, rational and methodical. While previous works were dominated by free improvisation with a generator, here the composer began to make patient use of cutting and splicing small fragments of magnetic tape.
The previous collection of sound materials, all measured and timed, permitted the development of a deliberate scheme and even the completion of a graphic score. In this way, this piece had sheetmusic. By 1964 Jorge Antunes was familiar with the first works of Stockhausen and also the German composer's efforts to produce scores for his first works entitled Elektronische Studien.
The score of Luminous Flow for White Sound I has its score on large sheets of paper, arranged in "landscape" orientation, measuring 92cm x 45 cm. For stereophonic instruction in the work, the graphica notation divided the sheet into an upper part for track 1 and a lower part for track 2. Each of these parts in turn had the dynamics notation superimposed on the notations of sound objects and frequencies, as in the Stockhausen scores. The horizontal axis, however, is graduated in seconds, whereas Stockhausen used the centimetre as the unit of the horizontal axis of the score, in order to indicate the length of the tape of each sound object.
In this period, Antunes developed a system of notation which permitted the identification of the kind of manipulation that had to be carried out on each sound object.
To follow are some examples. If A represents a sound object, its reverse - produced by reversing of the tape - is represented by 1/A . This new object heard at will be represented by 2/A. The slower object, with a speed below one-half the original, is represented by A/2.
Specially selected segments of the object may also gain a sppecial symbolic representation.

Thus, the symbol A] for example, represents a new object constructed from a fragment of object A lasting from second 2 to second 3.9.
The symbol * , thus represents a new object made up of the first 8.2 seconds of object A.
Besides electronic sounds produced by the sine, square, and saw-tooth wave generator, the composer also used his own voice as a sound material.